Tag: cataract surgery Sydney

The recovery stages from cataract surgery

Cataract surgery recovery typically takes around a month. Following the cataract surgery, you’ll want to exercise extreme caution with your eye.

Your ophthalmologist will provide you with specific instructions for the hours, days, and weeks after cataract surgery.

Following are some general guidelines for post-cataract surgical care:

  1. For a few weeks, refrain from hard lifting or vigorous activity.
  2. Avoid bending over for a couple of days.
  3. Avoid swimming for the first several weeks after surgery.
  4. Keep irritants away from your eye.
  5. Avoid rubbing your eyes.

The Stages of Recovery Following Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is often performed as an outpatient operation, which means you may return home the same day your cataract is removed. This implies that the majority of your recuperation will take place at home, with occasional follow-up appointments with your ophthalmologist to ensure adequate healing. It is critical to properly follow your ophthalmologist’s recovery instructions to minimize the chance of developing procedure-related problems including inflammation, infection, swelling in the retina, detached retina or lens, discomfort, and vision loss. Visit https://www.personaleyes.com.au/cataracts to read more about cataract surgery in Sydney.

While your ophthalmologist will provide you with a more comprehensive timeline for recovery and expectations, the following are some basic guidelines to follow after cataract surgery.

Immediately Following Surgery

After cataract surgery is done and you have spent sufficient time in the recovery room to let any residual anesthetic wear off, you may return home. Due to the fact that your eyesight will be impaired shortly after the cataract surgery, it is not safe for you to drive home. It is critical that you have someone trustworthy transport you home after the treatment. While this is normally an outpatient procedure, it is still surgery, and you may have grogginess, stiffness, or pain for many hours after the procedure. The following are common side effects on the first day after the cataract surgery

  • Watery eyes.
  • A sense of grit in your eyes.
  • Double vision or blurred vision.
  • A bloodshot or crimson eye.

To alleviate the discomfort, you may be given prescription eye drops. Additionally, you should acquire a pair of prescription sunglasses to shield your eyes from the brightness of the sun or lights, and it is important to wear them for the required duration of time. To maintain the protection of your eyes overnight, you may also get an eye patch or protective visor to wear to bed to prevent your eye from being poked or struck while sleeping.

Several Days Later

While you may continue to feel some physical pain in the eye that had cataract surgery, these symptoms should subside within 24 to 48 hours. You may need to use antibiotic eye drops for many days after the surgery, which may include cleaning the area surrounding your eye. Follow your eye doctor’s instructions carefully to prevent getting anything in your eye, including sterile water. check out some common eye drops at https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/topical-antibiotics

After you return home, you should take care not to get soap or water in your eye for the duration prescribed by your ophthalmologist. While you should be able to resume typical activities such as showering within a day after this outpatient operation, you may need to wear eye protection while bathing. Additionally, for a few days, while your eye recovers, you should avoid various hair products, fragrances, face washes, lotions, and cosmetics. For a few days after surgery, you may need to wear protective eyeglasses to avoid poking, rubbing, or scratching your eye. Itching and pain are usual in the days after the cataract surgery, however, it is critical not to touch your eye during this time.

This itching and pain will subside in two to three days. If it persists or worsens, see your doctor. These glasses may be necessary to correct your eyesight. Although your vision should improve after a day or two of surgery, if you have a monofocal lens implanted, you may need assistance seeing items up close since this lens does not compensate for varied ranges of vision. Click here to learn more about monofocal lens by clicking here.

While many simple activities, such as watching television and strolling about the home, are OK the day following surgery, more vigorous activity should be avoided. Your ophthalmologist will work with you to evaluate which elements of your lifestyle are safe to participate in, such as reading, close-up hobbies such as sewing or driving, or physically taxing activities such as exercising. It is critical to meticulously follow your ophthalmologist’s instructions since you run the danger of dislocating the new lens.

Typically, your ophthalmologist will visit you a day or two following the cataract surgery. You will almost certainly want assistance going to and from your eye doctor’s clinic. A week later, you will have another follow-up test. After that, you may devote a few weeks to healing prior to your next session.

Several Weeks Later

While significant vision improvement is achievable within one to three days after surgery, it may take between three and ten weeks for your eyesight to improve to its maximum potential. Your last examination with your ophthalmologist should occur around one month following surgery. This is the anticipated recuperation time in its entirety. With examinations prior to the one-month mark, your eye doctor should be able to detect and treat any complications that arise after cataract surgery.

After cataract surgery, the total recovery period is up to eight weeks or two months. Your eyesight should continue to improve throughout this period. Colors should seem brighter, and your eyesight should be generally crisper. While you are unlikely to regain complete vision or 20/20 vision, you should be able to see 20/30 or 20/40 without the need for corrective lenses such as glasses. 

Once your eyes have recovered completely from cataract surgery, your doctor will determine your final prescription for glasses. This is unlikely to alter since the artificial lens in your eye will retain its shape and clarity over time, unlike a biological lens. Click here to read about Should you exercise after cataract surgery?

If you have cataracts in both eyes and need surgery, your ophthalmologist will normally perform the cataract surgery on one eye first, wait for the eye to heal, and then schedule the second eye. While this prolongs your total eyesight recovery time, it is critical to allow for an adjustment period during which you can see out of one eye and determine if any issues occur throughout the healing process.

Should you exercise after cataract surgery?

It is recommended that you avoid heavy exercise and even bending forward for the first 1 to 2 weeks after cataract surgery.

The discomfort or pain associated with cataract surgery often disappears after a few days following the outpatient procedure. The eyesight rapidly improves, and complete recovery takes around eight weeks.

For at least a week after the surgery, avoid any strenuous activities, including exercise. Within a week or two post-cataract surgery, you may be able to resume light activity, such as walking. It is possible that resuming to exercise too soon after a cataract eye surgery increases the chance of complications from the procedure.

Cataract surgery is done on a patient’s eye to remove a cataract. You may immediately return home after the surgery, which is a common and usually safe technique.

As with previous surgeries, you will need to wait several weeks before returning to your typical fitness routine.

The time required to resume normal activity after cataract surgery varies according to the activity. While little exercise is OK during the first week, more severe activity should be avoided for many weeks thereafter. This will aid in the normal recovery of your eye.

Continue reading to learn how you may safely exercise after cataract surgery.

How long should you wait before resuming normal activity after cataract surgery?

Your eye doctor can advise you on the ideal time to begin exercising after cataract surgery. Take care to follow their directions precisely, since they may offer suggestions depending on your unique situation.

Following cataract surgery, here is a general guideline for when you may resume different levels of physical activity: 

Week one

For the first week after cataract surgery, strolling outdoors, modest treadmill walking, light housework, and gentle stretching are all suitable forms of low-impact physical exercise (without bending at the waist)

Avoid bending and lifting anything that weighs more than 10 to 15 pounds, such as laundry and groceries. This may increase the pressure in your eyes and make recovery more difficult.

The second week after surgery

After two weeks, your physician may authorize you to participate in moderate-intensity exercises such as: 

  • brisk walking
  • jogging
  • yoga; and 
  • slow dancing

Four to six weeks after surgery

After this, you should be able to resume more vigorous physical exercise. Exercises such as weightlifting, running, swimming, and intense cycling is examples of this kind of activity.

To be safe, see your eye doctor before resuming this level of exercise. You can read about Recovery tips from a cataract surgery by visiting http://uktherapists.com/recovery-tips-from-a-cataract-surgery/

What are the warning signs and symptoms of a serious postsurgical complication?

Although complications associated with cataract surgery are exceedingly uncommon, they can occur.

Significant side effects include progressive eye irritation, redness, or stickiness; increasing swelling within or around the eye; impaired or double vision; eye hemorrhage; and pain that does not respond to pain medication.

All of these symptoms are possible: blinding flashes, floaters, seeing glares or dark shadows, nausea, and vomiting.

A serious result, such as an eye infection or retinal detachment, changes in eye pressure, eye damage, or displacement of the intraocular lens (IOL) implant, may present as any of the above symptoms.

Cataracts secondary to age are a kind of cataract that occurs later in life.

Consult an eye doctor if you have any worries about whether anything is amiss with your eye. If you address your side effects as soon as they arise, their severity will decrease.

How is cataract surgery performed?

A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens. This clouding results in cataracts. It occurs as a result of protein clumping together in the lens and forming a clumping mass. Cataracts develop gradually and become more prevalent as we age, but they are not entirely prevented.

Over time, a cataract may damage your eyesight, making nighttime or low light vision difficult.

A cataract can only be removed surgically. During this procedure, the clouded lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens, referred to as an IOL.

If a cataract impairs your ability to do everyday duties such as watching television or driving, you will almost always need surgery. Additionally, you may need therapy if the cataract makes it more difficult to manage other eye disorders.

Before conducting surgery, your eye specialist will check and assess your eyes and eyesight. As a consequence, they will be able to better plan the procedure.

The following is a list of what you may anticipate throughout the procedure:

  1. A medical practitioner will initially numb the area around your eye using eye drops. You will be conscious during the operation.
  2. The doctor will cut into your eye with a little device and remove the cloudy lens, then shut your eye.
  3. The prosthetic lens will then be installed. The total duration of the process is estimated to be between 30 and 60 minutes.
  4. The doctor will place a bandage to safeguard your eye. 5. In the fifth phase, you will be transferred to a recovery area where you will be monitored by medical personnel.
  5. Before you leave the clinic, the doctor will provide you with aftercare instructions. To return home, you must be picked up by a family member, a friend, or a transportation service.

Cataract surgery is done on one eye at a time to prevent problems. Unless both eyes undergo surgery concurrently, you will need to wait around four weeks between the two procedures.

The critical element to have in mind

In general, it is okay to engage in light exercise during the first week after cataract surgery. Walking and stretching are two examples of non-bending exercises.

By the second week, you should be able to resume moderate-intensity exercises.

Within four to six weeks, you should be entirely healed. At this stage of the recuperation process, vigorous activity such as weightlifting or running is often safe.

The particular time period within which you may safely resume your workout regimen may vary by person. Always follow your doctor’s directions and keep your follow-up appointments. Your physician will be able to monitor your recovery and ensure that your eye heals properly.

Recovery tips from a cataract surgery

Cataract eye surgery is one of the most common and safest eye surgeries done in the United States today. The procedure is performed as a one-day procedure, and you should be able to return home the same day. The operation itself takes less than 20 minutes, and it is performed under local anesthetic to provide a comfortable experience. The majority of patients claim that they have clear eyesight after a day and that they are totally recovered within a few weeks.

The recuperation is straightforward, and the procedure results in eyesight that is clear, crisp, and stable. However, a painless, quick, and seamless recovery is only achievable if the patient follows the ophthalmologist’s advice and takes the necessary measures before the procedure. This helps to guarantee that you do not have any issues when your eye adapts to the artificial lens over time.

What should I anticipate during and after my cataract surgery recovery? What should I expect during and after my cataract surgery recovery?

The recovery period varies from patient to patient, therefore there is no set schedule for recovery. Some individuals heal quite quickly, and others recover rather slowly. The predicted recuperation period should be a few weeks; however, many patients report having clear eyesight within a few days of the procedure being performed.

Immediately after the procedure

After the surgeon has finished operating on your eye, you will be given enough time to recover from the anesthesia that you will be able to drive home.

During your rehabilitation, the doctor will give you eye drops, eyeglasses, and other drugs that you will need to keep your vision clear. The eye drops and prescription will help to avoid infections, reduce inflammation, and reduce the likelihood of problems. Because of the anesthetic used, it is not recommended that you drive yourself home. 

Have a friend or family member pick you up and drive you back to your house. When you go home, you should take a long sleep to give your eyes a chance to recover. After a few hours, you will be able to resume normal activities such as watching television, using your computer, or using your phone.

After the cataract surgery, a few days pass.

After a few hours, the aftereffects of the procedure had subsided. However, you may still suffer fuzzy vision after a few days, which will progressively improve with each passing day after that. It is possible that you may still feel slight discomfort since your eye is still changing and adapting. While this is typical, it is important that you completely adhere to the doctor’s recommendations. If these side effects continue and you believe they are becoming worse, make an appointment with your doctor right once.

After a month has passed after your cataract surgery,

Your eyesight should be as bright as clear as possible three to four weeks after the procedure is completed. This is the anticipated recuperation period, and by this point, you should have completed the necessary examinations. The total amount of time required for healing should be between 1 and 2 months. Your eyesight will be unimpaired even after you have recovered completely. It is not predicted to alter since, in contrast to real eye lenses, the artificial lens will not change over time.

Tips for a quick, pleasant, and painless recovery after cataract surgery are provided here.

Make sure to have your eyes checked on a regular basis.

Regardless of how well you believe your eye is recuperating, make sure you attend all of the follow-up appointments as prescribed by your doctor. This will guarantee that your eyes recuperate correctly and reduce the likelihood of any issues occurring.

Make sure you carefully follow all of the guidelines and directions provided by your ophthalmologist.

Due to the fact that your eyesight is very essential, you should take care when recovering from surgical procedures. Always consult with your doctor if you have any questions or concerns regarding your medicine or recovery. Also, if you notice that side effects such as itching are becoming more severe, do not hesitate to see your doctor.

Take it easy following the procedure.

Cataract surgery may seem to be a straightforward procedure to many individuals since it is performed in a single day. However, it is no different from any other kind of surgery. As much as possible, take a long sleep in the first few days to allow your eyes to relax and acclimate to the new lens. Avoid using your phone, computer, or watching television for extended periods of time since these activities can strain your eyes.

Stay away from physically demanding work.

Work that is physically demanding will put a great deal of strain on your eyes, which will be detrimental to your recuperation. Make a point of avoiding jobs that will place a high demand on your abilities, such as carrying large goods. It is advisable that you take some time to rest and allow your eyes to fully heal before returning to such activities.

Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes.

Because you have just undergone cataract surgery, sunshine, dust, and wind may all cause irritation to your eyes. In order to safeguard your eyes, it is critical that you wear any protective eyewear prescribed by your eye doctor. You should also avoid getting water or soap in your eyes until you have recovered completely.

Do not get behind the wheel.

Your eyesight may be hazy and shaky during the first several hours and up to one day after the cataract surgery. As a result, driving is not recommended. Have someone assist you until you are able to drive yourself again after your recovery.

Maintain the highest level of hygiene

Make sure you are in a highly clean atmosphere throughout your recuperation to prevent contracting any infections. To prevent having your eyes inflamed, make sure your home is completely swept and cleaned.

Swimming is a tough physical sport that requires stamina. During the recovery process, it will exert pressure on the affected eye. Additionally, water will come into contact with the eyes, causing irritation and redness.

Avoid rubbing your eyes.

Even in normal conditions, it is not advisable to massage your eyes since it might cause irritation. Can you imagine what it would be like to touch your eye after cataract surgery? No matter how much you want to massage your eyes because they are itchy, you should refrain from doing so.

Because cataract surgery is completed in a single day and you are able to return home, you will be able to complete the full recuperation process at home. Because your ophthalmologist will not be there, you will need to rigorously adhere to the directions and any recommendations that have been provided to you. Attend all of your follow-up tests and your recovery will be simple and swift, with no difficulties to worry about. In a few days or weeks, you should be able to return to your previous level of activity. You can read about The recovery stages from cataract surgery by visiting http://uktherapists.com/the-recovery-stages-from-cataract-surgery/

Medical Therapies

Medical therapies or rather medical treatments exist for a wide range of different health problems. First of all, a so-called diagnosis has to be made which means that the respective doctor is asked to identify a possible disorder or disease. Consequently, he or she has to describe and explain his or her diagnostic opinion considering the respective existing disorder or disease.

If the exact diagnosis, in other words, the disease or disorder, could be successfully made, doctors thus are able to propose an effective medical therapy or medical treatment.

Strictly speaking, patients are offered a great number of different types of therapies. For instance, there exist so-called preventive therapies. Preventive therapies are also known under the name of prophylactic therapies and describe special treatments that try to avoid certain, often critical, medical health states from occurring. What about abortive therapies?

So-called abortive therapies represent medical treatments that are responsible for stopping a medical health state from worsening any further. By the way, patients also do have the possibility to make use of so-called supportive therapies which make a great contribution to their general comfort, well-being, and health.

Note: In the context of general medicine, especially when talking about therapies and treatments, terms such as preventions, treatments, and cures are often used. We want to point out that these three expressions do not have the same significance. Preventions describe a medical possibility to help prevent a special disease, sickness, or injury. You can read about The Rogerian Approach to Counselling Theory by visiting http://uktherapists.com/the-rogerian-approach-to-counselling-theory/

The term treatment can be seen as a synonym for the expression ‘therapy’ – this is because of the reason that a treatment or therapy tries to medicate a special medical problem. In most cases, the treatment or therapy of such as medical problem can provoke its cure. The expression ‘cure’ means a treatment that succeeds in stopping medical problems permanently.

Medical Therapies

Now we want to describe an exemplary medical therapy: You are in all respects tired of wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses? Do you simply want to enjoy natural vision without glasses or lenses? We inform you about the possibility of the so-called laser eye surgery – a special therapy and treatment that helps people take their first step to a life which provides natural vision.

When talking about laser eye surgery many people refer to the term ‘LASIK’ or ‘Lasik’. Strictly speaking, Lasik represents a type of refractive eye surgery. In other words: Lasik, which is also a common medical expression in German, for instance, Augen laser mit Lasik, helps correct, cure, or reduce a wide range of different vision disorders such as others astigmatism, myopia, and hyperopia.

Besides Lasik, there exists also another surgical corrective procedure – namely PRK which is better known as photorefractive keratectomy. Lasik as well as photorefractive keratectomy are successful treatments when it comes to general vision problems or vision disorders. Furthermore, it can also be said that they represent great alternatives in comparison to corrective lenses or glasses. Click here to read about Recovery tips from cataract surgery.

The Rogerian Approach to Counselling Theory

In order to outline and explain the Rogerian approach to counselling theory, I will first look at how Rogers came to research. his approach. with reference to his background and interests; I will then go on to trace the development of his theory from the motivational drives in man through to the cause of psychological tension, covering his theory of personality development, and on to how he researched and developed a therapeutic environment in which this tension can be dissolved.

Carl Rogers was a psychologist in America. He was part of the Human Potential Movement that happened around the middle of this century, and the founder of humanistic psychology.

The Human Potential Movement was greatly influenced by the Existential approach believing that “Man’s wholeness is to be sought through direct experience rather than analytical reflection” (Kovel 199.1:154), and so was in opposition to the psychoanalytical view that man was at the mercy of his unconscious drives and instincts; and also in opposition to the view of the behaviourists, which suggested that man was at the mercy of his environment and learned behaviours.

Their belief was that man has his own potential for growth and thereby an ability to use what is, available to his consciousness as a way to the truth. Rogers also believed “that the innermost core of a man’s nature, is positive in nature”, and that man “is basically socialized, forward-moving, rational and realistic” (Rogers 1974), and, therefore not destructive as suggested by Freud.

Throughout his development of humanistic psychology, Rogers was not only influenced by existentialism but also by others in the Human Potential Movement, including Maslow, Combs and Snygg, and it is important to note that he came from an academic background in which he had been concerned with research; this was why he was not only keen to develop his theory but was also able to test it and record his findings.

The system he developed was not a closed system and he was always open to criticism, sometimes updating his work following further investigation. He also applied his ideas to his own personal development.

Through his work as a psychologist, he became interested in the communication between two people within a relationship and this lead him to research what motivates a human being.

He discovered an actualising tendency that’ is inherent in all organisms – this is the basic drive towards wholeness of the organism and actualisation of its potentialities – and that “The organism is self-controlled. In its normal state, it moves toward its own enhancement and toward independence from external control.”

The Rogerian Approach to Counselling Theory

One example for his evidence of the existence of an actualising tendency came from the work of Driesch, a biologist, who separated the two cells formed by the first division of a fertilised egg of a sea urchin and placed them in an environment conducive to growth to see if they could develop into two complete sea urchins even though they came from one egg.

The result was that each cell did develop into a complete sea urchin, thus proving that each organism had the potential to grow.

The conclusion that Rogers took from this, as well as other evidence and observations, was that given the right conditions the tendency for, and direction of, growth comes from within the organism; that the tendency is operative at all times; that it is indicative of life, and it responds in a fluid and changing manner to a variety of stimuli, both internal and external, as they come into the awareness of the organism.

Therefore, the locus of evaluation of stimuli lies within the organism and the organism in its drive toward wholeness chooses how to respond to a stimulus by deciding whether or not it will be enhanced by the experience on offer. So, the response to a stimulus is not fixed but changeable, as it is determined by the needs of the organism. at that moment.

The organism is also able to retain the feedback of its experiences and so learn from its mistakes – this process is known as the organismic valuing process.

So, if the organism is motivated by its actualising tendency to enhance itself and it functions efficiently by learning from its mistakes, why then do we see people who appear to be stuck in self-destructive routines or appear to be in conflict with themselves?

If we now take an example of a person who is usually quiet and compliant but occasionally has a tantrum which takes him by surprise and he then disowns the tantrum as out of character, we can see that he must be working towards both behaviours.

However, he is only aware of the drive to be compliant and seems to be unaware of the other drive which is working at cross purposes to this. Rogers concluded that there must be a second motivational drive in humans that is conflicting with the organism’s actualising tendency, and to find this second drive he turned his attention to the place and function of awareness in life.

Rogers likened human awareness to the small peak of a pyramid: The small peak represents our conscious attention, or awareness, and capacity to symbolise our experiences; the vast remainder of the pyramid represents our non-conscious organismic functioning being that which we do automatically but do not have to be constantly aware of. such as blinking.

There is a flow of information from the non-conscious organismic functioning into awareness and a person who is functioning efficiently will be open to this flow and hence aware of his organism, and, therefore, himself.

However, when a person senses conflict between his internal information and that of the external environment, he might use conscious thought as a barrier to stem the flow of information into awareness in order to eliminate the conflict. In doing this he is going against the fluidity of his organism, blocking his actualising tendency, and holding his consciousness as rigid.

So, we can now see that apart from a motivation to actualise the organism, man has a motivation to direct his conscious life and that this drive is in response to an external influence.

Rogers explained the reason for barriers to our organismic valuing process by looking at personality development.

At first, a baby is driven by his actualising tendency and he trusts his organismic valuing process to guide his behaviour, such as when to cry or sleep. As he experiences himself and his relationship to his surroundings he also defines himself from his experiences, thus forming a self-concept while still trusting his organism. Part of the core of his self-concept is that he is loved and is lovable whatever behaviour he exhibits.

However, as the infant grows, his parents intimate or tell him that they only love him when he expresses the behaviour of which they approve – this is a condition of his worth to them and is a serious threat to the core of his self-concept.

As the infant cannot ‘survive without his parents’ love and approval he complies with the condition of worth and uses it as a conscious thought to stem or modify the behaviour that his organism has deemed satisfying and enhancing, thus maintaining parental approval and his self-concept.

The condition of worth has come from a locus of evaluation external to the infant’s organism, so the value applied to this experience is not his own and he has no way of knowing how the value was arrived at. Therefore, he cannot challenge the value but is obliged to accept it as a fixed rule.

To accept, or introject, this value the child must first deny the experience of his organism and distort his perception of the experience so that it fits in with both the new value and his self- concept. For example – if I hit mum I’m not lovable, therefore it is not possible for me to want to hit mum. In other words, the child makes as much sense of the situation as he is able. This process is called a subscription.

The effects of conditions of worth on a child, therefore, are: to fix his self-concept whereas before it was fluid, changeable, and in line with his organism; to stem the flow of non-conscious organismic functioning into awareness, thereby blocking his motivation to actualise his organism; and to create a drive to direct conscious life in order to maintain his self-concept.

So it is conditions of worth that cause a rift between the organism and the self-concept, creating the need for a second motivational drive and thereby causing people to function less efficiently as they deny, and lose touch with their organism in favour of maintaining their self-concept.

As the organism’s motivation to actualise itself is operative at all times it is bound to come into conflict with the second drive when its behaviour is deemed threatening to the self-concept. This creates a state of incongruence between internal experience and the actual choice of behaviour and results in psychological tension as the drives pull in different directions. The degree of tension depends on how estranged the self-concept has become from the organism.

Now that Rogers had discovered the reason for an organism to function inefficiently he researched how functioning could be improved. Referring back to the work of Driesch, Rogers thought “if I can supply a psychological amniotic fluid, forward movement of a constructive sort will occur.”

Meaning, given the right environment, the actualising tendency will once more take precedence and conditions of worth would dissolve in favour of an organismic value, thereby re-aligning the self-concept with the organism and relieving tension.

Influenced by Fiedler’s research into the ideal therapeutic relationship, Rogers then stated that “the following conditions had to exist and continue over a period of time for constructive personality change to occur:

  1. Two persons are in psychological contact
  2. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious
  3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship
  4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client
  5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavours to communicate this to the client
  6. The communication to the client of the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved. (Rogers 1957)” (Nelson-Jones 1991:211)

As we can see, Rogers placed great significance. the relationship between the therapist and client, with emphasis on the therapist’s ability to:

  1. be congruent, to be herself with the client and, when appropriate, communicate her feelings to him
  2. have unconditional positive regard for the client, accept him for who he is and not what he does, have respect for him and his views
  3. be empathic, experience the client’s subjective frame of reference as if it were her own and communicate this to him, sometimes bringing his feelings into focus from the edge of his awareness, thus enabling him to symbolise them.

The therapist creates an environment, or relationship, hitherto denied to the client, that is conducive to growth; she facilitates change using personal skills, communication of understanding, and by modelling another way of being.

Further to the core conditions of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy – which Rogers emphasised were a very special way of being with another person – he later considered the fourth condition of tenderness. It was also his experience that sometimes purely his presence had a positive effect on a client, which he related to intuition and the touching of their inner spirits.

So, in this environment, the client can feel accepted, not feel judged, and so reduce the need to defend his self-concept and begin to accept and value himself. He is able to re-evaluate himself, dissolve conditions of worth and reduce tension.

He is motivated to actualise his organ-ism rather than maintain self-concept, thereby reducing conflict and restoring psychological health. The process of therapy is focused on the present and the client learns to be existential and make use of current resources, and information by listening to his organism instead of blocking it.

The aim of the Rogerian approach to counselling is towards becoming a fully functioning person. We have already explored how a person may function well (by responding to his organism) and we also know that Rogers believed the man to be “socially constructive”, so by releasing man’s individual potential, chaos does not ensue; what does ensue is a responsible individual who cares about and seeks the enhancement of himself, his environment, and that of other people. These are goals for living, pursued by the therapist as well as the client.

It is also important to note that from Rogers’ research he did not only develop a theory of personality and an approach to counselling, but he also did much to remove the “imbalance in the power relationship” between counsellor and client, and much to open up training in counselling “to all who showed talent and not be restricted to those with professional or university degrees” (Masson 1992:231), thereby opening up possibilities previously denied in the field of psychotherapy.

Finally, I would like to add that in keeping with his belief in the fluidity of response, Rogers said that although he believed that his theory held good, he also hoped that his work would be a “stimulation to the significant study of the deeper dynamics of human behaviour”, a stimulus for further creative thinking, not a dogma of truth.

Bibliography

  1. Kovel, Joel. A complete Guide to Therapy. (Penguin, 1991)
  2. Nelson-Jones, Richard. The Theory and Practice of Counselling Psychology. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston Ltd, 1991)
  3. Rogers, Carl R. Client Centred Therapy. (Constable, 1991)
  4. Rogers, Carl R. Carl Rogers on Personal Power. (Constable, 1986)
  5. Rogers, Carl R. On Becoming a Person. (Constable, 1974)

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